几个小技巧教你拆分简化雅思长难句
2019-01-28
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摘要:

  平行并列句是指一个句子中会有两个成分或以上并列句。英语句子最常用的方法是通过使用一些关联词,如 and、or、but等,或标点符号如:分号,逗号,破折号等,若干个在语义上有联系或相互照应的单词、词组或句子连在一起组成一种并列或平行结构的长句,以表达一个复杂的多层次含义。

  我们做题的技巧是先找出谓语,然后确定主语,再通过关联词(and,but等)从后向前找出并列的核心单词。将句子从并列连词处断开,将并列句变成两个或若干个相对短的句子,然后再用处理简单句的方法——抓句子主干,来依次处理每个相对短的句子。比如下列两句:

  Everyone should know where the nearest fire alarm box is located and where exits, fire escapes,and fire doors are.

  I wanted her to know that my heart was with her, and that I thought England owed her a great debt and was going to miss her.

  解析如下:

  1. Everyone should know where the nearest fire alarm box is located and where exits, fire escapes, and fire doors are.

  结构:本句有三个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为should know,其余两个都是由where引导的并列宾语从句。

  拆分:

  1) Everyone should know

  2) Where the nearest fire alarm box is located

  3) Where exits, fire escapes, and fire doors are

  翻译:

  每个人都应该知道最近的火灾报警箱的位置,以及安全出口、安全梯及防火门位于何处。

  2. I wanted her to know that my heart was with her, and that I thought England owed her a great debt and was going to miss her.

  结构:本句有5个谓语动词,其中主句的谓语动词为wanted。was和thought分别属于两个由that引导的并列宾语从句。而owed和was going为两个并列的谓语动词,共同主语为England。England这句话前面为了避免重复而省略了宾语从句的引导词that,实际上是thought的宾语从句。

  拆分:

  I wanted her to know

  That my heart was withher

  That I thought

  (That) England owed her agreat debt and was going to miss her.

  翻译:我想让她知道我的心陪伴着她,而且我认为英国欠了她一大笔债,很快就会想念她。

  小结:1和2两句都是从句并列,找到连词,再找从句中的主干成分,便可以理解句意。

  除了从句并列,还有不定式引导的并列句,比如下面两个句子:

  The way space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design cities is culturally influenced.

  It seems simple enoughto distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces acting on an organism into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental.

  解析如下:

  3. The way space is used to enable the individual to achieve privacy, to build homes or to design citiesis culturally influenced.

  结构:本句中有两个谓语动词,主句谓语为 is culturally influenced, 定语从句谓语为 isused to. 主语the way 有一个很长的定语从句修饰,定语从句中有三个并列的不定式短语作动词“isused”的目的状语即to achieve privacy, to build homes,和to design cities.

  拆分:

  The way is culturally influenced.

  space is used

  to enable the individual to achieve privacy

  to build homes

  to design cities

  翻译:怎样利用空间实现个人隐私,修建住宅及规划城市都受到文化上的影响。

  4. It seems simple enough to distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces acting on an organism into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental.

  结构:本句话关键是通过and抓住并列的成分,句子的主干是It seems simple enough to distinguish …andto separate…,其中,理解的难点在separate后面的部分。Separate的宾语forces后面被“acting on an organism”这个现在分词短语限定,into后面两个those告诉我们forces被分成哪些部分了。

  拆分:

  It seems simple enough

  to distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment

  and to separate forces(acting on an organism) into

  those that are internal and biological

  and those that are external and environmental.

  翻译:区分有机体和周围环境似乎很简单;把作用于有机体的力量分为内部生物的力量和外部环境的力量似乎也很简单。

  小结:从上两句可以看出,并列的不定式后面还包含定语从句或名词性从句,这增加了找出并列成分的难度,但记得,第一步还是找出连词,然后分析每个从句的主干结构,从而透彻地理解整个句子。

  除了不定式可以引导并列结构,从句也可以,而且难度更大,因为从句会误导考生找不到主句的主干,请看下句:

  Children in low-income families and poor communities are less likely to take organized youth sports for granted because they often lack the resources needed to pay for participation fees, equipment, and transportation to practices and games and their communities do not have resources to build and maintain sports fields and facilities.

  解析:

  5. Children in low-income families and poor communities are less likely to take organized youth sports for granted because they often lack the resources needed to pay for participation fees, equipment,and transportation to practices and games and their communities do not have resources to build and maintain sports fields and facilities .

  结构:本句中有三个谓语动词,are less likely to do为主句谓语 ,lack和 do not have 为并列原因状语从句的谓语,主语分为they 和 their communities.

  拆分:

  Children (in low-income families and poor communities )are less likely (totake organized youth sports for granted)

  take…forgranted…把…认为是理所应当

  because they often lack the resources (needed)(to pay for participation fees, equipment, and transportation to practices andgames)

  and (because)their communities do not have resources (to build and maintain sports fields and facilities ).

  翻译:来自低收入家庭和贫穷社区的孩子就很少将社区运动视作理所应当,因为他们经常缺少必须的金钱来支付门票、设备和来回车费,而且他们的社区也没有能力来建设和维持运动场和运动设备。

  小结: 这句话只有虽然有三个谓语,但主句只有一个,所以第一个才是真正的谓语,其他两个是原因状语从句引导的并列从句的谓语,所以理解这句话需要找出主句的谓语。

  总结:长难句中的平行结构可以用不同的方式构成,可能并列成分内部仍然有并列成分,但是最重要的还是先找到主干结构,再分析并列句的结构,最后整合起来,一点点解剖整个句子的意思。

  以上就是小编为大家带来的用几个小技巧教你拆分简化雅思长难句,希望对正在备考的你有所帮助。

作者:青灯为伴
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