ACT阅读考试的直接事实题
2018-08-05
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摘要:


  ACT阅读考试的直接事实题,考生在准备这方面考试的时候,经常会被一些问题所困扰,为了能够帮助大家更好的掌握这方面问题,小编在文章中给大家做了相关的解析,希望大家能够从中得到些许的帮助。

  1. 直接事实题

  此类题目一般是就文中所提供的信息进行直接提问,需要考生找到正确的对应处,并作同义转换。

  原文: “The revisionist interpretation, which I support, does not enshrine dinosaurs as paragons of intellect, but it does maintain that they were not small brained after all. They had the “right-sized” brains for reptiles of their body size.”

  译文:我所支持的修正主义者的解释,就是不把恐龙视为智力的模范,但是也主张他们毕竟不是小脑。对他们这种身形的爬行动物来说,他们的脑的大小正好合适。

  题目:According to the passage, what is the revisionist interpretation concerning the relationship between intelligence and physical size­

  A. Dinosaurs actually had relatively large brains.

  B. Dinosaurs were paragons of intellect.

  C. Dinosaurs were relatively small brained.

  D. Dinosaurs’ brains were appropriately sized.

  答案:D

  分析:直接事实题根据文章内容,做直接的同义转换,此处将right-sized改写为appropriately sized,属于正确改写。而A选项将其改写为relatively large,不正确。

  注意:直接事实题常见错误选项的特点为故意丢失not,如B选项中的paragons of intellect与文章相同,但是丢失了not,因此具有一定迷惑性。同样,C选项中的small brained也与文章完全相同,但也故意丢失了not。

  2. 举例作用题

  此类题目就文中的例子进行提问,需要考生回答此例子在文中所起的作用。

  原文: “Government is so technical that even career civil servants cannot explain what is happening. In 1978 I attended a seminar on federal estate and gift tax, where the Internal Revenue Service lawyers responsible for this area frankly confessed that they did not understand the Tax Reform Act of 1976.”

  译文:政府是如此的有技术含量以至于甚至连公务员都不能解释正在发生着什么。1978年,我出席了一个联邦资产税收的研讨会,在这里负责的美国国内税局的律师坦白地承认到,他们不明白1976年的税收改革法案。

  题目:The author uses the description of the tax seminar in 1978 to make the point that some governmental issues are:

  A. so technical that not even career civil servants can understand them.

  B. so technical that only career civil servants can understand them.

  C. more technical than they used to be before the passage of the Tax Reform Act.

  D. too technical for anyone other than an Internal Revenue Service tax lawyer to understand.

  答案:A

  分析:作者在文中描述一个例子的作用就是为了证明一个结论,所以,举例作用题的答案为例子之前或之后的结论句。一般,由for example开头的例子,结论句在之前。如果例子结束后出现therefore,则therefore之后为结论句。本题结论句在例子之前,即Government is so technical that even career civil servants cannot explain what is happening. 通过同义改写,得到A选项。B选项错误原因依然是故意丢失not。

  注意:举例作用题常见错误选项为选项中重现例证中原文,比如此题的C, D选项中出现的Tax Reform Act和Internal Revenue Service。

  3. 推论题

  此类题目与直接事实题不同,不是就文中的信息进行直接的提问,而是考查作者所写的某处内容实际暗示了什么。

  原文:“The remarkable thing about dinosaurs is not that they became extinct, but that they dominated the earth for so long…”

  “People, on this criterion, are scarcely worth mentioning—5 million years perhaps since Australopithecus, a mere 50, 000 for our own species, Homo sapiens…”

  译文:恐龙最着名的一件事情不是他们灭绝了,而是他们占据了地球如此之长的时间

  人类,在这种标准下,根本不值得一提——大概5百万年前的南方古猿,仅仅5万年前的我们自己的物种,智人。

  题目:In the context of the passage, what does the author mean when he states that “people … are scarcely worth mentioning” (lines 81-82)?

  A. Compared to the complex social behavior of dinosaurs, human behavior seems simple.

  B. Compared to the longevity of dinosaurs, humans have been on earth a very short time.

  C. Compared to the size of dinosaurs, human seem incredibly small.

  D. Compared to the amount of study done on dinosaurs, study of human behavior is severely lacking

  答案:B

  分析:解答推论题时方法如下:

  1. 如果定位句位于段首,或定位句后有冒号,破折号时,往后找答案。

  2. 如果定位句中有this等代词时,则往前找答案。

  3. 如果定位句既位于段首,句中又有代词,则同时读句前和句后,并作比较,得出答案。

  此题属于第三种情况,读上文,知“恐龙占据地球的时间如此之长”;读下文,得“人类,在这种标准下,不值得一提”。两者相比,人类在地球上的生存时间比恐龙短,所以正确答案选B。

  注意:灵活应用“竖读选项法”,此题中选项开头相同,可通过竖读选项,快速得到各选项的关键词,以方便解题。


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作者:Kral
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